The Kalash, an ancient people who managed to survive and preserve their cultural identity primarily due to the geographical location and centuries of isolation in the remote valleys of the Hindu Kush Mountains are among the smallest and possibly the most unique ethno-religious community in Pakistan. Certainly the most popular theory about the origin of this Dardic, Indo-Aryan people, whose physical appearance and customs indicate the ties with the ancient Hellenes is that they are descendants of Alexander the Great, whose army conquered this area almost two and a half millennia ago. Opinions are divided among the experts that began to take an interest in the Kalash in the 19th century, while the latest analyses of their genetic material indicate that direct connections with the Macedonians are most likely just a myth. In addition to the rich material culture that can best be seen the luxurious folk costume of Kalash women that has survived to this day as part of everyday life and as well the traditional architecture, unique customs and languages, this people of European appearance who are characterized by pale skin and blue eyes, the polytheistic religion is probably the most important ingredient of their unique identity. Their religion, which is based on the ancient Indo-Aryan religion and also possesses elements of animism, is characterized by a distinctive pantheon of various deities that symbolize natural forces and the cycle of life. In addition to ritual animal sacrifices and festivals dedicated to the change of seasons and the gods who govern this cycle, religion, as well as the concept of belief in clean (unclean) and unclean (pragata) things permeate all aspects of life of the Kalasha, from daily activities to childbirth rituals, marriage and burial of the deceased. Unlike the Muslim communities in this area, Kalash women enjoy surprising level of freedom, from dressing to the way they choose their partners. An integral part of the culture of this community, in which the fundamental rules are based on a rural, traditional pattern, is a liberal approach to women’s rights, which despite a clear hierarchy and division of labor between men and women is not that rigid as is neighboring Muslim communities. Thus, the faces of girls and women are never fully covered with veils but decorated with colorful headbands, they openly communicate with men and even make physical contact with them, and when they become ready for marriage, the girls are free to choose the young man they like.


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